search-form
Save this page Delete Your saved items:
Save articles and pages so that you can conveniently read them later.
   

Terms of Use

This website is a service made available by FindLaw, a Thomson Reuters business, and its affiliates (collectively referred to in this document as "FindLaw"). All use of this website, including all content, information, and services provided on this website, is subject to the following terms of use ("Terms"), which constitute a legal agreement between you and FindLaw. By accessing, browsing, or using this website, you acknowledge that you have read, understood, and agree to be bound by these Terms. We may update these Terms at any time, without notice to you. Each time you access this website, you agree to be bound by the Terms then in effect.

Licence

By offering this website for use, FindLaw provides you with a worldwide, nonexclusive, nontransferable, revocable, limited licence to access and make personal use of the information and services on this website, strictly subject to and in accordance with these Terms. FindLaw reserves the right to terminate this licence at any time and for any reason. Your failure to comply with these Terms will result in automatic termination of this licence, without prior notice, and you must immediately destroy all copies of downloaded materials in your possession or control. Except for the limited licence set forth in these Terms, FindLaw does not grant you any express or implied rights or licences under any patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other proprietary or intellectual property rights.

Usage Restrictions

By using this website, you agree that:

  • you shall not use, intentionally or unintentionally any of the content, information, or services on this website in a manner contrary to or in violation of any applicable international, national, or local law, rule, or regulation having the force of law, including, but not limited to, privacy laws, including the Data Protection Act 1998, and any rules of any national or other securities exchange, including, without limitation, the London Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, or the NASDAQ;
  • you shall not use this website in any manner that could harm, infect, take over, disable, overburden, or otherwise impair any of our computer systems, including, but not limited to, the servers, networks, and other components connected to or used for this website;
  • you shall not interfere with any other party's use and enjoyment of this website, or of any of the content, information, or services provided on this website;
  • you shall not forge headers or otherwise manipulate identifiers in order to disguise or alter the origin of any content transmitted through the services or develop restricted or password-only access pages, or hidden pages or images (those not linked to from another accessible page);
  • you shall not upload, post, or otherwise transmit any content that you do not have a right to transmit under any law or under contractual or fiduciary relationships (such as inside information, proprietary and confidential information learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements);
  • you shall not upload, post, or otherwise transmit any material that contains software viruses or any other computer code, files, or programs designed to interrupt, destroy, or limit the functionality of any computer software or hardware or telecommunications equipment;
  • you shall not attempt to gain unauthorised access to any services, accounts, computer systems, or networks connected to any server used for this website, through password mining, hacking, or any other means;
  • you shall not seek to gain access to any materials or information through any means not intentionally made available by us;
  • you shall not reproduce, duplicate, copy, download, sell, resell, or otherwise exploit this website, or any portion hereof, for commercial purposes without FindLaw's prior written consent;
  • you shall not use any framing techniques to enclose any portion of this website (including, but not limited to, images, text, page layout, and form) without FindLaw's prior written consent;
  • you shall not make any use of the trademarks, service marks, trade names, logos, and graphics on this website without FindLaw's prior written consent.
  • you shall not use any network monitoring or discovery software to determine the site architecture, or extract information about usage, individual identities, or users;
  • you shall not use any robot, spider, other automatic software or device, or manual process to monitor or copy our website or the content, information, or services on this website without FindLaw's prior written consent;
  • you shall not collect any email addresses made available on this site for purposes of promotions or marketing campaigns;
  • you shall not distribute, on or through this website, any advertising; promotion; solicitation for goods, services, or funds; or solicitation for others to become members of any enterprise or organisation without FindLaw's prior written permission; and
  • you shall not use or otherwise export or re-export this website, or any portion thereof, in violation of the export control laws and regulations of the United Kingdom or the United States of America.

Any unauthorised use terminates the licence granted hereby.

Electronic Communications

When you visit this website and when you communicate with us electronically, for example by sending us an email, you consent to receive communications from us electronically. We will communicate with you by email or by posting notices on this website. You agree that all agreements, notices, disclosures, and other communications that we provide to you electronically satisfy any legal requirement that such communications be in writing.

Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks

The technology and content provided on this website is owned by or licenced to FindLaw and protected by United Kingdom, United States, and international intellectual property laws. FindLaw and its licensors retain all proprietary rights to that content and technology. Please see our separate notice for additional information.

Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability

WE PROVIDE THIS WEBSITE ON AN "AS IS" AND "AS AVAILABLE" BASIS. WE MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO THE OPERATION OF THIS WEBSITE, OR THE CONTENT, INFORMATION, OR SERVICES INCLUDED ON THIS WEBSITE. YOU AGREE THAT YOUR USE OF THIS WEBSITE IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK. TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, FINDLAW DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS AND IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. WE WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OF ANY KIND ARISING FROM THE USE OF THIS SITE, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, AND PUNITIVE DAMAGES.

Privacy

Please review our privacy statement for a description of our privacy practices and an explanation of how we may use any personal information we collect on this website.

Advertisers

This website may contain advertising and sponsorship. Advertisers and sponsors are responsible for ensuring that material submitted for inclusion on this website is accurate and complies with applicable laws. FindLaw will not be responsible for the illegality of, or any error or inaccuracy in, advertisers' or sponsors' materials, or for the acts or omissions of such advertisers or sponsors.

Registration and Account Information

Certain sections of this website require you to register as a user or create an account. By registering or creating an account, you agree to provide accurate and complete information and to inform us of any changes to that information. Please note that we may store and process your personal information in systems located outside of your home country. Each registration is for a single user only, unless otherwise expressly provided on the registration page. You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your account and password and for restricting access to your computer, and you agree to accept responsibility for all activities that occur under your account or password. In case of misuse, we may terminate further access or take such other action as we, in our sole discretion, deem appropriate. If you believe there has been unauthorised use, you must notify us immediately.

Publication and Use of Interactive Services

By publishing, uploading, submitting or distributing any messages, data, information, text, graphics, links, or other materials ("Posted Materials") to FindLaw.co.uk, including messages posted on message boards and materials published in directories on FindLaw.co.uk, you automatically grant, or warrant that the owner of the following rights has expressly granted, to FindLaw, a perpetual, fully-paid, royalty-free, irrevocable, nonexclusive right and licence to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, sublicence and sell Posted Materials, and incorporate Posted Materials into any medium or technology, now known or later developed.

You will not publish, upload, submit or distribute any Posted Materials on FindLaw.co.uk which are unlawful, deceptive, misleading, or abusive in any way, including but not limited to Posted Materials that are defamatory, libelous, pornographic, obscene, threatening, indecent, invasive of privacy or publicity rights, hateful, or would constitute or encourage a criminal offense, violate the rights of any party, contain any corrupted data or malicious code that may impair or alter the appearance or functionality of FindLaw.co.uk, or give rise to liability or violate any domestic or international law or regulation, or the rules of any securities exchange, either intentionally or unintentionally, or the Community Guidelines FindLaw may delete any of your Posted Materials at any time, without prior notice or your permission and at FindLaw's sole discretion.

On certain sections of FindLaw.co.uk, Posted Materials submitted for publication on the site will be accompanied by your username and shall not be submitted anonymously. You warrant that such Posted Materials will not misrepresent or obscure your identity or affiliation with any person or entity. Furthermore, you warrant that it will not, by any method or action, directly or through a third party seek to artificially enhance, degrade, or otherwise manipulate the recommendations or endorsements of any user, individual, or group on FindLaw.co.uk including your own.

FindLaw has no obligation or intent to edit, monitor or screen Posted Materials and is not responsible for the content in, or linked to or from, Posted Materials. FindLaw may, and retains the right to, examine FindLaw.co.uk for adherence to the Agreement and remove any materials that may be objectionable, violate the Agreement, or law, but expressly disclaims any and all warranties or representations that it will do so in any specific instance. By using FindLaw.co.uk, you acknowledge and agree that FindLaw is under no obligation to monitor, edit, or remove any Posted Materials solely upon your insistence.

Services on FindLaw.co.uk that allow you to contact, communicate or interact with other users, FindLaw or FindLaw affiliates and customers ("Interactive Services"), such as the Community, are provided to you solely for personal use. You will not include any advertising, promotion, solicitation for goods, services or funds, or solicitation for anyone to become members of a commercial enterprise or organisation in Posted Materials delivered through Interactive Services without the express written permission of FindLaw.

No Legal Advice or Practice of Law

The information and services on this website are not intended to and shall not be used as legal advice. You use the content, information, and services on this website at your own risk. You acknowledge that under no circumstances is FindLaw, its agents, affiliates or customers, providing legal advice or representation through FindLaw.co.uk, and that nothing on this website is intended as a substitute for legal advice from a solicitor.

Solicitor-Client Relationship & Confidentiality

You acknowledge that no solicitor-client relationship is, or will be, formed through the use of this website, and that you have no expectation of privacy or confidentiality of communications occurring through this website. The hiring of a solicitor is a critical decision and should not be predicated solely on comments, recommendations, advertisements, or other Posted Materials contained on FindLaw.co.uk or any other website.

Solicitor Professional Conduct

If you are a solicitor participating in any aspect of FindLaw.co.uk, including but not limited to Interactive Services, you acknowledge that the Rules or Codes of Professional Conduct, including the SRA Code of Conduct 2011, Scotland's Standards of Conduct 2009, and Northern Ireland's Solicitors' Practice Regulations 1987 (collectively, "Rules"), of the jurisdictions in which you are licenced apply to all aspects of your participation and that you will abide by such Rules. FindLaw disclaims all responsibility for your compliance with these Rules. You warrant that Interactive Services will be used to provide general information only, and not for the provision of legal advice or the practice of law.

No Endorsement of Solicitors

FindLaw does not select, approve, or otherwise endorse any particular solicitor, barrister, law firm, or provider of legal services on FindLaw.com. Any and all such recommendations or Posted Materials are from third parties and are inherently subjective in nature, could be inaccurate or incomplete, and are difficult or impossible to verify. Therefore, FindLaw expressly disclaims any representation or warranty that such Posted Materials are correct or reliable. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE SHALL FINDLAW HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO YOU FOR ANY RELIANCE ON INFORMATION CONTAINED ON OR OBTAINED THROUGH THIS WEBSITE. SUCH RELIANCE SHALL BE SOLELY AT YOUR OWN RISK.

Third Party Content

Third party content, messages and services may appear on this website or may be accessible through links from this website. FindLaw is not responsible, and assumes no liability, for any mistakes, misstatements of law, defamation, slander, libel, omissions, falsehood or obscenity in the statements, opinions, representations or any other form of content contained in any third party content appearing on or accessible from FindLaw.co.uk. You acknowledge that the information and opinions in the third party content are neither endorsed or controlled by, nor reflect the beliefs of, FindLaw.

Termination

You acknowledge and agree that FindLaw, in its sole discretion, may terminate your website access if your conduct is found to be unlawful, inconsistent with, or in violation of, the letter or spirit of these Terms, including, without limitation, for nonpayment of any real or imputed fee for use of the site. FindLaw shall not be liable to you or any third party for termination of website access. Should you object to any terms and conditions of these Terms, or to any subsequent modifications thereto, your only recourse is to immediately discontinue use of the website.

Indemnification

You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold FindLaw and its officers, directors, employees, affiliates, agents, licensors, and suppliers harmless from and against all claims, losses, expenses, damages, and costs, including reasonable legal fees, resulting from any violation of these Terms by you.

Governing Law and Jurisdiction

These Terms are governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales, and you agree to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts. You agree to waive all defenses or objections to such jurisdiction and venue.

Severability of Provisions

If any provision of these Terms is unlawful, void, or unenforceable, then that provision shall be deemed severable from the remaining provisions and shall not affect their validity and enforceability.

Contact Information

If you have any questions about these Terms, or about the content, information, or services on this website, you may contact us using any of the methods described on our contact us page.